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Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "rape" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "raped" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzung im Kontext von „rape“ in Italienisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: Per il secondo, un sacchetto magico che era sempre pieno di rape.
One study that looked at lifetime experiences of marital and cohabitating partner violence found nearly equal rates of victimization among men and women Tjaden and Thoennes, However, these statistics convey the larger topic of partner violence and do not reflect rates of marital rape.
Given that same-sex marriage is a relatively new concept, and only minimally accepted globally, little research has explored marital rape in same-sex relationships.
Legally, governments have direct impact on the occurrence of marital rape. The state "…engages in the definition, monitoring, and sanctioning of appropriate behavior" Torres, This can play out in criminalizing or not criminalizing marital rape and therefore deeming what is appropriate.
Catharine MacKinnon argues that rape laws in male dominated societies exist to regulate access to women from a male perspective, not to protect women's right to freely decide whether to engage in sexual intercourse or not.
Whatever the reason behind such laws, even when state laws have criminalized marital rape, state institutions perpetuate it.
For example, although marital rape has been criminalized throughout the United States, the original laws of the s and s treated marital rape differently from non-marital rape, and in some states this continues to be the case even today see Marital rape United States law.
As these laws exemplify, marital rape is seen as somehow less reprehensible than rape outside of marriage Bergen, Even when marital rape is prosecuted successfully, courts often pass shorter sentences - even if the law itself does not stipulate this - based on the view that sexual violation is less serious if it occurs within marriage.
Following this same understanding, British courts often pass lower sentences to marital rape than to other cases of rape because it is believed that it causes less harm to the victim Mandal, Police departments are another state institution that treats domestic violence differently than other forms of violence.
Police often label domestic abuse calls as low priority, respond slower, and focus on what provoked the abuse rather than the violent actions of the perpetrator Schelong, Also, they often act as mediators in the situation because they may feel that domestic violence is a family matter and therefore not their business Schelong, While government institutional influences are vast, marital rape is often sustained by cultural ideologies.
According to Catharine MacKinnon and Andrea Dworkin, the issue of sexual violence, including within marriage, has not been a political spectrum issue - that is a left wing vs.
For many cultures, ideas of marital rape seem often foreign imposed and contradict the belief that such matters should be dealt with privately rather than by the government Smith, In other instances, notably in the country of India, members of the government have spoken publicly that marital rape cannot be recognized in their culture.
The Indian Minister of State for Home Affairs, Haribhai Parthibhai Chaudhary , stated in April , "The concept of marital rape, as understood internationally, cannot be suitably applied in the Indian context due to various factors, including levels of education, illiteracy, poverty, myriad social customs and values, religious beliefs, [and] the mindset of the society to treat the marriage as sacrament" Torres, For many other countries, the concept of marital rape is itself an oxymoron Smith, Women in these cultures largely "…share the cultural logic that marital rape is a contradiction in terms…" while men simultaneously "…see women's sexual consent in marriage as taken for granted…" and therefore "…reject the very concept of marital rape" Smith, The act of imposing sexual intercourse against the will of the wife is often not identified as morally wrong, and so it is difficult to attempt to stop the practice, "Often, men who coerce a spouse into a sexual act believe their actions are legitimate because they are married to the woman.
UN Women recommended the abolition of giving bride price, and stated that: "Legislation should [ Young women from various settings in South Asia explained in surveys that even if they felt discomfort and didn't want to have sex, they accepted their husbands' wishes and submitted, fearing that otherwise they would be beaten.
This situation leaves women with very little sexual autonomy. The notion that women are sexually autonomous and therefore have the ability to give or retract consent is not universally understood.
Gabriella Torres writes, "The degree to which women and men view themselves as unique social beings with a full ability to make choices and suffer consequences varies by culture" Torres, As a result, in cultures where women are not considered autonomous, they are not in a position to refuse sex: they have to choose between unwanted sex and being subjected to violence; or between unwanted sex and being abandoned by their husbands and ending up living in abject poverty.
According to Sheila Jeffreys , in Western countries, " sexual liberation " ideologies have aggravated the problem of male sexual entitlement, leading to women submitting to unwanted sex not only due to physical force or illegal threat, but due to societal pressure: "The force which has operated on them [women] all their lives and continues to operate on them within marriages and relationships remains largely invisible.
The prohibition of rape serves other purposes, such as protection of the rights of male relatives or husband, enforcing of religious laws against sex outside of marriage, or preservation of a woman's respect and reputation in society.
Under such ideologies it is difficult to accept the concept of marital rape. Richard A. Posner writes that, "Traditionally, rape was the offense of depriving a father or husband of a valuable asset — his wife's chastity or his daughter's virginity".
In many cultures, marriages are still arranged for the purpose of procreation, property, and consolidation of extended family relations, often including a bride price or a dowry.
In such situations, marriages are pre-arranged as an affair between families and clans. In some cultures, refusal of an arranged marriage is often a cause of an honor killing , because the family which has prearranged the marriage risks disgrace if the marriage does not proceed.
In Bangladesh, dowry demand at marriage is linked to increased sexual violence. In cultures where marriages are arranged and goods are often exchanged between families, a woman's desire to seek a divorce is often viewed as an insult to the men who negotiated the deal.
However, the fact that people in developing countries are increasingly selecting marriage partners by whether they are in love — a much more Western world view — does not necessarily improve the situation.
These types of marriages, especially in southeastern Nigeria, are putting women in more difficult positions: if one chooses to marry based on love against their family's wishes, admitting violence in the relationship is a disgrace because it means admitting that one made the wrong judgement Smith, The paradisaical narrative of man and woman in Genesis establishes a foundation of marriage:.
And likewise the husband does not have authority over his own body, but the wife does. Do not deprive one another except with consent for a time, that you may give yourselves to fasting and prayer; and come together again.
On the standing of each party to determine how this biblical principle—denial of conjugal relations—was to be effected was codified as an ecclesiastical canon in A.
Dionysian of Alexandria : "Persons who are self-sufficient and married ought to be judges of themselves. The Christian religion teaches that pre-marital sex is fornication , and sexual relations by a married person with someone other than his or her spouse is adultery , both of which are sins , while sex within marriage is a duty.
This concept of 'conjugal sexual rights' has the purpose to prevent sin in the form of adultery and temptation as well as to enable procreation. The above is interpreted by some religious figures as to render marital rape an impossibility.
Further, Pentecostal Christianity prescribes gender expectations for married individuals that "…reestablish a patriarchal bargain…" in which "…women acquiesce to men's authority in return for certain kinds of support" Smith, Husbands are expected to provide for the family, and in return, wives are to submit to their husband's authority Smith, Ultimately, this "…strengthens some of the gender dynamics that make intimate partner violence possible in the first place" Smith, By contrast, Pope Paul VI in his encyclical letter Humanae vitae wrote that "Men rightly observe that a conjugal act imposed on one's partner without regard to his or her condition or personal and reasonable wishes in the matter, is no true act of love, and therefore offends the moral order in its particular application to the intimate relationship of husband and wife.
Another sustaining factor is the obligatory roles placed on wives and what they come to understand as their "duty". Their "duty" is to maintain family harmony and happiness Kwiatkowski, Further, because many of these women believe giving sex is their duty, they do not characterize their experience as marital rape Bergen, However, "…women who have experienced forced sex in marriage understand this experience as an abuse or violation", they just may not characterize it as marital rape Torres, On the other hand, husbands are influenced by the expectations of their masculinity.
In Africa, these expectations include being a husband, father, and head of the household which requires men to provide food, shelter and protection Smith, Along with this "…obligation of being the provider comes the privilege and authority of patriarchy" Smith, As a result, it is often the man's perception that his wife has challenged his authority that leads to the violence Smith, In the United States, masculinity is understood as a fixed entity that exists despite the changes of everyday life Connell, It is understood as being in comparison to femininity, and more specifically, in opposition to femininity: Masculinity is to superiority as femininity is to subservience Connell.
Therefore, masculinity is correlated with aggression in such a way that scholars argue violence is a way for men to show their masculine identity Umberson et al.
Another expectation of masculinity is that men are not to show their emotion Umberson et al. Instead, as Robert Connell argues, the "masculine prototype" is a strong and stoic man who appears to remain in control of the situation and his emotions Umberson et al.
This sense of control in Western masculinity has direct implications for domestic violence. Scholars argue that some men use violence to regain this sense of control when it is lost Umberson et al.
However, not all men who subscribe to masculinity expectations are violent. In fact, most men, in general, are not violent Umberson et al.
For those who are violent, ideals of masculinity seem to play some causal role in their violence. Research shows that "violence is more likely among men who experience a disconnection between their personal circumstances and their emotions" Umberson et al.
Evidently, there seems to be some connection between the masculine expectation of suppressing or disconnecting from one's emotions, and one's tendency to be violent Umberson et al.
Although marital rape is not always defined as such in different cultures, there is a universal understanding of the violation that comes with rape.
The criminalization of marital rape does not necessary mean that these laws are enforced in practice, with lack of public awareness, as well as reluctance or outright refusal of authorities to prosecute being common in many countries.
For instance, in Ireland, where marital rape was made illegal in , by there had been only two persons convicted of marital rape.
In many countries, most often, in practice, there will be no prosecution except in extreme cases that involve a very high level of violence. There have been many problems with prosecuting the perpetrators of spousal rape, chief amongst them has been the reluctance of the various legal systems to recognize it as a crime at all.
However, criminalization has opened a new set of problems. While most parties agreed with the House of Lords' motive in making the decision, there were many who were of the opinion that the decision involved post facto criminalization, since the House of Lords were imprisoning spouses for doing what was once, according to the law, their right.
Another problem results from prevailing social norms that exist in certain cultures. In order for any law to be successfully enforced, the acts which it prohibits must be perceived by society as abusive.
As such, even if a jurisdiction enacts adequate laws against marital rape, in practice, these laws are ignored if the act is not socially considered a crime.
Other problems arise from the fact that, even in countries where marital rape is illegal, many people are not aware of the existing laws.
Because in most parts of the world marital rape laws are very new, many people do not know of their existence. In many cultures, traditional ideas about marriage are deeply rooted in the conscience of the population, and few people know that forcing a spouse to have sex is illegal.
A report by Human Rights Watch stated that: "With few exceptions across Africa, marital rape is not recognized as a crime, and domestic violence is seen as a right of married men.
Torres, G. London: Oxford University Press. Umberson, D. Relationship dynamics, emotion state, and domestic violence: A stress and masculinities perspective.
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This article is about rape within marriage. For rape before marriage, see Marry-your-rapist law. Non-consensual sex in which the perpetrator is the victim's spouse.
Further information: History of rape. See also: Rape in English law. Main article: Marital rape in the United States. Main article: Rape in English law.
Main article: Marry-your-rapist law. Main article: Effects and aftermath of rape. Further information: Male rape. Further information: Gender roles.
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Prosecution of gender-targeted crimes Women's shelter 25 November 6 February By country Gender violence. Afghanistan . The EVAW law criminalizes 22 acts of violence against women, including rape, battery, or beating; forced marriage; humiliation; intimidation; and deprivation of inheritance.
Under the law rape does not include spousal rape. Albania . The Criminal Code was amended in and to criminalise marital rape.
The law criminalizes rape but does not address spousal rape. Spousal rape can be punished by up to 15 years imprisonment.
Angola . Antigua and Barbuda  . The Sexual Offences Act, , includes in the definition of rape: "with a female person who is not his wife".
Argentina . Rape of men and women, including spousal rape, can be punished by imprisonment from six months to up to 20 years. Armenia .
Rape is a criminal offense, and conviction carries a maximum sentence of 15 years; general rape statutes applied to the prosecution of spousal rape.
Australia . In , the Criminal Law Act was amended to abolish the exemption from punishment in cases where a husband raped his wife.
The laws of individual states and territories provide the penalties for rape. Austria . Azerbaijan . Spousal rape is illegal, but observers stated police did not effectively investigate such claims.
The Bahamas  . Rape of men or women is illegal, but the law does not protect against spousal rape, except if the couple is separated or in the process of divorce, or if there is a restraining order in place.
Bahrain . Rape is illegal, although the criminal code allows an alleged rapist to marry his victim to avoid punishment. The law does not address spousal rape.
Bangladesh . The law prohibits rape of a female by a male and physical spousal abuse, but the law excludes marital rape if the female is above Barbados  .
There are legal protections against spousal rape for women holding a court-issued divorce decree, separation order, or non-molestation order.
As of Belgium . Marital rape was criminalised by court decision in Belize . The criminal code criminalizes rape of men or women, including spousal rape.
The code states that a person convicted of rape shall be sentenced to imprisonment for eight years to life. Benin . The law explicitly prohibits spousal rape and provides the maximum penalty of 5 years imprisonment for conviction of raping a domestic partner.
Bhutan . Spousal rape is illegal and prosecuted as a misdemeanor. Bolivia . In the government passed the Law Guaranteeing Women a Life Free from Violence,  it included the repeal of the marital rape exemption in the Penal Code.
Bosnia and Herzegovina . The maximum penalty for rape, regardless of gender, including spousal rape, is 15 years in prison.
The failure of police to treat spousal rape as a serious offense inhibited the effective enforcement of the law. Botswana  .
The law criminalizes rape but does not recognize spousal rape as a crime. Brazil . The law criminalizes rape of men or women, including spousal rape.
Brunei  . The law does not criminalize spousal rape and explicitly states that sexual intercourse by a man with his wife is not rape, as long as she is not younger than 14 years 15 years if she is ethnic Chinese.
Bulgaria . The law criminalizes rape, and authorities generally enforced its provisions when violations came to their attention.
Sentences for rape convictions range up 20 years in prison. While authorities could prosecute spousal rape under the general rape statute, they rarely did so.
Burkina Faso. Burundi . The government did not enforce the law uniformly, and rape and other domestic and sexual violence continued to be serious problems.
As of . Canada . The law criminalizes rape of men or women, including spousal rape, as sexual assault, and the government enforced the law effectively.
Cambodia . Cape Verde . Central African Republic  . Chile . The law criminalises rape of men or women, including spousal rape.
China   . The law does not safeguard same-sex couples or victims of marital rape. Colombia . Although prohibited by law, rape, including spousal rape, remained a serious problem.
Comoros . Republic of the Congo. As of , there were no specific provisions in the law outlawing spousal battery other than general statutes prohibiting assault.
Rape is illegal, but the government did not effectively enforce the law, and women's rights groups have reported that spousal rape was common.
Democratic Republic of Congo  . The legal definition of rape does not include spousal rape. Costa Rica . The law criminalizes rape of men or women, including spousal rape and domestic violence, and provides penalties from 10 to 18 years in prison for rape.
The judicial branch generally enforced the law. Croatia . Conviction of rape, including spousal rape, is punishable by up to 15 years imprisonment.
Cuba  [ self-published source? The government enforced both laws. Cyprus . The law criminalizes rape, including spousal rape, with a maximum sentence of life in prison for violations.
The government enforced the law effectively. Czech Republic . The law prohibits rape, including spousal rape, and provides a penalty of two to 15 years in prison for violations.
Denmark . The law criminalizes rape against women or men the statute is gender neutral , including spousal rape, and domestic violence.
Penalties for rape include imprisonment for up to 12 years. Dominica . The Sexual Offences Amendment Act repealed the previous "marital exclusions" of the rape law and introduced a specific marital rape section [s3 3 ] to the Sexual Offences Act.
Dominican Republic . The law criminalizes rape of men or women, including spousal rape, and other forms of violence against women, such as incest and sexual aggression.
The sentences for conviction of rape range from 10 to 15 years in prison and a fine of , to , pesos. East Timor . Although rape, including marital rape, is a crime punishable by up to 20 years in prison, failures to investigate or prosecute cases of alleged rape and sexual abuse were common.
Ecuador . The law criminalizes rape of men or women, including spousal rape and domestic violence. Rape is punishable with penalties of up to 22 years in prison.
Spousal rape is not illegal,    based on a Court of Cassation ruling that "a wife cannot withhold sex from her husband without a valid reason according to sharia ".
El Salvador. Marital rape is not specifically addressed by statue. The World Bank's " "Women, Business and the Law" report states that the country's general rape laws apply to marital rape.
Equatorial Guinea. Estonia . The law criminalizes rape, including spousal rape, and physical abuse, including domestic violence. The penalty for rape, including spousal rape, is imprisonment for up to 15 years.
Eswatini Swaziland . Ethiopia . Fiji . The law provides for a maximum punishment of life imprisonment for rape.
The law recognizes spousal rape as a specific offense. Finland . The law criminalizes rape, including spousal rape, and the government enforced the law effectively.
If the offender used violence, the offense is considered aggravated, and the penalty may be more severe. France .
The law criminalizes rape, including spousal rape, and domestic violence, and the government generally enforced the law effectively.
The government and NGOs provided shelters, counseling, and hotlines for rape survivors. Gambia . Spousal rape is not illegal and was widespread;, police generally considered it a domestic issue outside its jurisdiction.
Georgia . Germany . The law criminalizes rape, including spousal rape, and provides penalties of up to 15 years in prison.
Greece . Grenada  . Marital rape was criminalized in a amendment to the Criminal Code. Guatemala .
The law criminalizes rape of men or women, including spousal rape, and sets penalties between five and 50 years in prison. Police had minimal training or capacity to investigate sexual crimes or assist survivors of such crimes, and the government did not enforce the law effectively.
Guinea-Bissau . The law prohibits rape, including spousal rape, and provides penalties for conviction of two to 12 years in prison; however, the government did not effectively enforce the law.
Guyana  . Marital rape was criminalised by the Sexual Offenses Act Haiti . While the law prohibits rape of men or women, it does not recognize spousal rape as a crime.
Honduras . The law criminalizes all forms of rape of men or women, including spousal rape,  but unlike other rapes is not a "public crime" and thereby requires the survivors to complain for prosecution to occur.
Rape victim stories can be very difficult to read, frightening and emotionally draining for some but stories of rape show other victims that they are not alone in their struggles.
Rape stories detail the many abuses that some people suffer and yet survive and go on to succeed in recovering and regaining control of their lives.
Rape victim stories can help others to realize that there are other survivors that have been through exactly what they have and come out the other side a whole person.
The following rape stories contain scenes of abuse, sexual assault , incest and violence. The people in these rape victim stories have been badly wounded by these events and yet have the courage to stand up and say what has happened to them.
Each of these rape stories speaks to the courage of the person who has shared it. Medically reviewed by Harry Croft, MD.Die so entstandenen Arbeiten erschlossen sich Re Zero Anime im Zusammenhang mit Arbeit, Beziehungen Rape Deutsch von Migrantengemeinden, Gewalt gegen Frauen 007 Stirb An Einem Anderen Tag Vergewaltigung durch Ehemänner bis zu Missbrauch von DienstmädchenHomophobie, Rassismus, Hassverbrechen - eine Welt von vordem nicht angesprochenen Problemen. Füllen Sie bitte das Feedback-Formular aus. Quelle: Europarl. Beispiele für die Übersetzung Rüben ansehen 24 Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. Vergewaltigung einer or oder od eines Minderjährigen. Vergewaltigung f in der Ehe. Somit erscheint es als seien die Vergewaltigungen und anderen Sexualdelikte nicht das Ergebnis von Individuen oder individueller Gruppen Kostenlos Serien Ansehen als seien sie Teil einer breiteren Praktik, die darauf ausgerichtet ist, Teile der sudanesischen Bevölkerung zu vertreiben und zu zerstören. Vielen Dank für Ihr Feedback! Vor 33 Der Hobbit Online Schauen gründete sie die erste von Frauen geführte Anwaltskanzlei in Pakistan und verteidigt seitdem erfolgreich vor allem Opfer Rape Deutsch VergewaltigungMissbrauch in der Ehe und Zwangsarbeit sowie Angehörige religiöser Sky Q Fernbedienung, die der Blasphemie bezichtigt werden. Das Wort im Beispielsatz passt nicht zum Stichwort. Given the scale of the attacks it is difficult to consider that the perpetrators do not know that the same acts are occurring in other places and that their actions fall within the framework of a general attack against a certain part of the Darfur population. Sorella Monica Joan Es geht nicht um einen kleinen Fleck, auf dem man Rüben und Zwiebeln erntet. Quelle: GlobalVoices. Seychelles . Yllö, Kersti. Marry-your-rapist law Rape shield law Xhamster Alte Version accusation of rape Rape investigation Movies2k.To kit. The law further Joachim Król that if the rapist marries the victim, the rapist receives no punishment. Archived from the original PDF on December 28, Each of these rape stories speaks to the courage of the person who has shared it. Laos . Übersetzung für 'rape' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzung im Kontext von „rape“ in Italienisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: Per il secondo, un sacchetto magico che era sempre pieno di rape. rape übersetzen: die Vergewaltigung, der Raub, vergewaltigen, rauben. Erfahren Sie mehr.